Dynamics of Immunological and Biochemical Markers Depends on the Severity and Time after Symptoms Onset of COVID-19 – Single Centre Analysis

Authors

  • Anastasiya Mihaylova Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Bulgaria
  • Spaska Lesichkova Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Maria Atanasova Clinic of anesthesiology, resuscitation and intensive care, University Hospital “St. Anna”, Bulgaria
  • Julieta Hristova University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Veneta Grigorova Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Medical Faculty, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria
  • Nevena Gesheva Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Bulgaria
  • Dobrin Svinarov University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Milena Velizarova University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Elisaveta Naumova Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7546/CRABS.2023.07.13

Keywords:

COVID-19, severity, biomarkers

Abstract

More than three years after the first wave of COVID-19, the biomarkers responsible for the course of this disease continue to be debated. Moreover, the new condition, long COVID, poses many unsolved questions. Therefore, we decided to perform a complex analysis of immune and biochemical parameters in patients with different severity of COVID-19. Eighty-five adult patients with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in the period April-November, 2020, were enrolled in the study. Extended immunological and biochemical parameters were analyzed in different time points after symptoms onset of COVID-19. Our results demonstrated that severe patients present with increased CRP, ferritin, D-dimer and NLR, decreased counts of lymphocytes, total T lymphocytes and major T-cell subsets, increased proportions of activated T cells, Tregs and Bregs. Markers of immune response dysfunction combined with hematological, inflammatory and coagulation indicators may be more informative for predicting severe COVID-19. Moreover, the changes and dynamics of immunological and biochemical biomarkers depend on the severity and time after COVID-19 symptoms onset.

Author Biographies

Anastasiya Mihaylova, Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank,
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: mihaylova_ap@abv.bg

Spaska Lesichkova, Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank,
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Department of Clinical Immunology,
Medical University – Sofia
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: s_lesichkova@abv.bg

Maria Atanasova, Clinic of anesthesiology, resuscitation and intensive care, University Hospital “St. Anna”, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Clinic of anesthesiology, resuscitation and intensive care,
University Hospital “St. Anna”
1 Dimitar Mollov St
1750 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: m.atanassova@abv.bg

Julieta Hristova, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Department of Clinical Laboratory,
Faculty of Medicine,
Medical University – Sofia
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: julieta_sd@yahoo.com

Veneta Grigorova, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Medical Faculty, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery,
Medical Faculty,
Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”
1 Kozyak St
1407 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: grigorveny@yahoo.com

Nevena Gesheva, Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank,
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: n_gesheva@hotmail.com

Dobrin Svinarov, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Department of Clinical Laboratory,
Faculty of Medicine,
Medical University – Sofia
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: dsvinarov@yahoo.com

Milena Velizarova, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Department of Clinical Laboratory,
Faculty of Medicine,
Medical University – Sofia
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: milena.velizarova@gmail.com

Elisaveta Naumova, Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

Mailing Address:
Clinic of Clinical Immunology with Stem Cell Bank,
University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Department of Clinical Immunology,
Medical University – Sofia
1 St. Georgi Sofiiski St
1431 Sofia, Bulgaria

E-mail: naumovaej@gmail.com

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Published

31-07-2023

How to Cite

[1]
A. Mihaylova, “Dynamics of Immunological and Biochemical Markers Depends on the Severity and Time after Symptoms Onset of COVID-19 – Single Centre Analysis”, C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. , vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 1092–1099, Jul. 2023.

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Section

Medicine